# 합성곱 신경망

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## 노트

### 위키데이터

- ID : Q17084460

### 말뭉치

- ConvNet architectures make the explicit assumption that the inputs are images, which allows us to encode certain properties into the architecture.
^{[1]} - A ConvNet arranges its neurons in three dimensions (width, height, depth), as visualized in one of the layers.
^{[1]} - A ConvNet is made up of Layers.
^{[1]} - We use three main types of layers to build ConvNet architectures: Convolutional Layer, Pooling Layer, and Fully-Connected Layer (exactly as seen in regular Neural Networks).
^{[1]} - The final layer of the CNN architecture uses a classification layer such as softmax to provide the classification output.
^{[2]} - This tutorial demonstrates training a simple Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to classify CIFAR images.
^{[3]} - As input, a CNN takes tensors of shape (image_height, image_width, color_channels), ignoring the batch size.
^{[3]} - In this example, you will configure our CNN to process inputs of shape (32, 32, 3), which is the format of CIFAR images.
^{[3]} - Why ReLU is important : ReLU’s purpose is to introduce non-linearity in our ConvNet.
^{[4]} - The pre-processing required in a ConvNet is much lower as compared to other classification algorithms.
^{[5]} - The architecture of a ConvNet is analogous to that of the connectivity pattern of Neurons in the Human Brain and was inspired by the organization of the Visual Cortex.
^{[5]} - A ConvNet is able to successfully capture the Spatial and Temporal dependencies in an image through the application of relevant filters.
^{[5]} - The role of the ConvNet is to reduce the images into a form which is easier to process, without losing features which are critical for getting a good prediction.
^{[5]} - CNN is a class of deep learning networks that has attracted much attention in recent studies.
^{[6]} - At the beginning of the application of CNN, a similar pipeline is adopted as in the supervised learning models, except that the machine learning algorithms are replaced by CNN.
^{[6]} - The pipeline of CNN-based models is illustrated in Fig.
^{[6]} - Illustration of CNN-based model.
^{[6]} - As shown, it is necessary to prepare a large number of training data with corresponding labels for efficient classification using CNN.
^{[7]} - They used a multiview strategy in 3D-CNN, whose inputs were obtained by cropping three 3D patches of a lung nodule in different sizes and then resizing them into the same size.
^{[7]} - To utilize time series data, the study used triphasic CT images as 2D images with three channels, which corresponds to the RGB color channels in computer vision, for 2D-CNN.
^{[7]} - However, one can also apply CNN to this task as well.
^{[7]} - Central to the convolutional neural network is the convolutional layer that gives the network its name.
^{[8]} - In the context of a convolutional neural network, a convolution is a linear operation that involves the multiplication of a set of weights with the input, much like a traditional neural network.
^{[8]} - The name “convolutional neural network” indicates that the network employs a mathematical operation called convolution.
^{[9]} - A convolutional neural network consists of an input and an output layer, as well as multiple hidden layers.
^{[9]} - The hidden layers of a CNN typically consist of a series of convolutional layers that convolve with a multiplication or other dot product.
^{[9]} - The neocognitron is the first CNN which requires units located at multiple network positions to have shared weights.
^{[9]} - To start, the CNN receives an input feature map: a three-dimensional matrix where the size of the first two dimensions corresponds to the length and width of the images in pixels.
^{[10]} - For each filter-tile pair, the CNN performs element-wise multiplication of the filter matrix and the tile matrix, and then sums all the elements of the resulting matrix to get a single value.
^{[10]} - During training, the CNN "learns" the optimal values for the filter matrices that enable it to extract meaningful features (textures, edges, shapes) from the input feature map.
^{[10]} - As the number of filters (output feature map depth) applied to the input increases, so does the number of features the CNN can extract.
^{[10]} - These operations are the basic building blocks of every Convolutional Neural Network, so understanding how these work is an important step to developing a sound understanding of ConvNets.
^{[11]} - The primary purpose of Convolution in case of a ConvNet is to extract features from the input image.
^{[11]} - It is important to understand that these layers are the basic building blocks of any CNN.
^{[11]} - Please note however, that these operations can be repeated any number of times in a single ConvNet.
^{[11]} - Deep CNN made a noteworthy contribution in several domains like image classification and recognition; therefore, they become widely known standards.
^{[12]} - This section describes various classical and modern architectures of Deep CNN, which are currently utilized as a building block of several segmentation architectures.
^{[12]} - This CNN model implements dropout layers with a particular end goal to battle the issue of overfitting to the training data.
^{[12]} - The controller is a predefined RNN, where child model is the required CNN for classification of images.
^{[12]} - Rather than focus on one pixel at a time, a convolutional net takes in square patches of pixels and passes them through a filter.
^{[13]} - The next layer in a convolutional network has three names: max pooling, downsampling and subsampling.
^{[13]} - As more and more information is lost, the patterns processed by the convolutional net become more abstract and grow more distant from visual patterns we recognize as humans.
^{[13]} - To teach an algorithm how to recognise objects in images, we use a specific type of Artificial Neural Network: a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).
^{[14]} - In the case of a Convolutional Neural Network, the output of the convolution will be passed through the activation function.
^{[14]} - After a convolution layer, it is common to add a pooling layer in between CNN layers.
^{[14]} - Training a CNN works in the same way as a regular neural network, using backpropagration or gradient descent.
^{[14]} - A convolutional neural network, or CNN, is a deep learning neural network designed for processing structured arrays of data such as images.
^{[15]} - The architecture of a convolutional neural network is a multi-layered feed-forward neural network, made by stacking many hidden layers on top of each other in sequence.
^{[15]} - A simple convolutional neural network that aids understanding of the core design principles is the early convolutional neural network LeNet-5, published by Yann LeCun in 1998.
^{[15]} - Typically, the first layer of a convolutional neural network contains a vertical line detector, a horizontal line detector, and various diagonal, curve and corner detectors.
^{[15]} - The neurons within a CNN are split into a three-dimensional structure, with each set of neurons analyzing a small region or feature of the image.
^{[16]} - A Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is a deep learning algorithm that can recognize and classify features in images for computer vision.
^{[16]} - The architecture of a CNN is a key factor in determining its performance and efficiency.
^{[16]} - The ImageNet project has more than 14 million images specifically designed for training CNN in object detection, one million of which also provide bounding boxes for the use of networks such as YOLO.
^{[16]} - Our study proposes a prediction method using one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1-D CNN) that contains all aforementioned processes together.
^{[17]} - With the advent of deep learning, 1-D CNN has become favorable for extracting features from time series signals, and therefore for detection, prediction, and classification10.
^{[17]} - Therefore, CNN possesses the capacity to extract features from the 1-D time series data of raw ECG signals and use them to monitor mental stress and detect myocardial infractions (MI)11.
^{[17]} - We propose a prediction method for VT and VF based on a 1-D CNN trained using HRV signals.
^{[17]} - When you input an image into a ConvNet, each of its layers generates several activation maps.
^{[18]} - The first (or bottom) layer of the CNN usually detects basic features such as horizontal, vertical, and diagonal edges.
^{[18]} - The operation of multiplying pixel values by weights and summing them is called “convolution” (hence the name convolutional neural network).
^{[18]} - A CNN is usually composed of several convolution layers, but it also contains other components.
^{[18]} - In this section, we describe a new convolutional neural network (CNN) based on the SMILES notation of compounds.
^{[19]} - An overview of our CNN is shown in Fig.
^{[19]} - Our CNN transforms the SMILES feature matrix into a low-dimensional feature vector termed the SMILES convolution finger print (SCFP).
^{[19]} - CNN has multiple layers consisting of two convolutional and pooling layers with a subsequent global pooling layer.
^{[19]} - But what is a convolutional neural network and why has it suddenly become so popular?
^{[20]} - In addition to exploring how a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) works, we’ll also look at different architectures of a ConvNet and how we can build an object detection model using YOLO.
^{[20]} - There are a number of hyperparameters that we can tweak while building a convolutional network.
^{[20]} - Let’s look at how a convolution neural network with convolutional and pooling layer works.
^{[20]} - A Convolutional Neural Network is a class of artificial neural network that uses convolutional layers to filter inputs for useful information.
^{[21]} - The CNN would filter information about the shape of an object when confronted with a general object recognition task but would extract the color of the bird when faced with a bird recognition task.
^{[21]} - A convolutional network is different than a regular neural network in that the neurons in its layers are arranged in three dimensions (width, height, and depth dimensions).
^{[21]} - This allows the CNN to transform an input volume in three dimensions to an output volume.
^{[21]} - Each kernel can output a feature map and all the feature maps are concatenated together, this is also known as a convolutional layer and it is the core component in a CNN.
^{[22]} - A typical CNN is usually structured as a series of layers, including multiple convolutional layers and a few of fully connected layers.
^{[22]} - Therefore, the process of training a CNN model is transformed into an optimization problem, which normally seeks to minimize the value of the loss function over the training data.
^{[22]} - Specifically, a gradient-descent based algorithm is usually adopted to iteratively optimize the parameters in a CNN.
^{[22]} - A schematic of a two-layer CNN architecture is shown in Fig.
^{[23]} - such that the CNN performs the task that is required.
^{[23]} - The main aim of this work is to investigate the applicability of CNN in impact detection and identification of complex composite structures such as aircraft stiffened panel.
^{[24]} - Thus, using a CNN with raw data as input will be more advantageous than traditional extraction methods.
^{[24]} - It is used to normalise the output vector of the CNN, which is of length equal to the number of classes, say, to a vector of length, whose values sum to 1.
^{[24]} - The nodes at the output of the layer, will, thus, contain the probabilities of the input to the CNN belonging to all classes.
^{[24]} - In this post I am going to explain what they are and how you can create a convolutional neural network in Keras with Python.
^{[25]} - We (along with many CNN implementations) are technically actually using cross-correlation instead of convolution here, but they do almost the same thing.
^{[26]} - A CNN trained on MNIST might look for the digit 1, for example, by using an edge-detection filter and checking for two prominent vertical edges near the center of the image.
^{[26]} - For our MNIST CNN, we’ll use a small conv layer with 8 filters as the initial layer in our network.
^{[26]} - For our MNIST CNN, we’ll place a Max Pooling layer with a pool size of 2 right after our initial conv layer.
^{[26]} - We will conclude the chapter with a full working example of LeNet, the first convolutional network successfully deployed, long before the rise of modern deep learning.
^{[27]} - To solve the abovementioned two problems, this paper proposes a fault-diagnosis algorithm based on “end-to-end” one-dimensional convolutional neural network.
^{[28]} - The model does not rely on artificial feature extraction and expert knowledge and maximizes the use of CNN for feature extraction.
^{[28]} - Section 2 gives a brief introduction of CNN.
^{[28]} - The CNN is a special structure of the feed-forward neural network, generally including a convolution layer, activation layer, pooling layer, and fully connected layer.
^{[28]}

### 소스

- ↑
^{1.0}^{1.1}^{1.2}^{1.3}CS231n Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition - ↑ Convolutional Neural Network
- ↑
^{3.0}^{3.1}^{3.2}Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) - ↑ Understanding of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) — Deep Learning
- ↑
^{5.0}^{5.1}^{5.2}^{5.3}A Comprehensive Guide to Convolutional Neural Networks — the ELI5 way - ↑
^{6.0}^{6.1}^{6.2}^{6.3}Convolutional Neural Network - an overview - ↑
^{7.0}^{7.1}^{7.2}^{7.3}Convolutional neural networks: an overview and application in radiology - ↑
^{8.0}^{8.1}How Do Convolutional Layers Work in Deep Learning Neural Networks? - ↑
^{9.0}^{9.1}^{9.2}^{9.3}Convolutional neural network - ↑
^{10.0}^{10.1}^{10.2}^{10.3}ML Practicum: Image Classification - ↑
^{11.0}^{11.1}^{11.2}^{11.3}An Intuitive Explanation of Convolutional Neural Networks - ↑
^{12.0}^{12.1}^{12.2}^{12.3}Convolutional neural network: a review of models, methodologies and applications to object detection - ↑
^{13.0}^{13.1}^{13.2}A Beginner's Guide to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) - ↑
^{14.0}^{14.1}^{14.2}^{14.3}An intuitive guide to Convolutional Neural Networks - ↑
^{15.0}^{15.1}^{15.2}^{15.3}Convolutional Neural Network - ↑
^{16.0}^{16.1}^{16.2}^{16.3}Convolutional Neural Network Architecture: Forging Pathways to the Future - ↑
^{17.0}^{17.1}^{17.2}^{17.3}Application of a convolutional neural network for predicting the occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmia using heart rate variability features - ↑
^{18.0}^{18.1}^{18.2}^{18.3}What are convolutional neural networks (CNN)? - ↑
^{19.0}^{19.1}^{19.2}^{19.3}Convolutional neural network based on SMILES representation of compounds for detecting chemical motif - ↑
^{20.0}^{20.1}^{20.2}^{20.3}Tutorial On Convolutional Neural Networks - ↑
^{21.0}^{21.1}^{21.2}^{21.3}Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) - ↑
^{22.0}^{22.1}^{22.2}^{22.3}Advances in Convolutional Neural Networks - ↑
^{23.0}^{23.1}A mixed-scale dense convolutional neural network for image analysis - ↑
^{24.0}^{24.1}^{24.2}^{24.3}A Convolutional Neural Network for Impact Detection and Characterization of Complex Composite Structures - ↑ How to build a convolutional neural network in Keras
- ↑
^{26.0}^{26.1}^{26.2}^{26.3}CNNs, Part 1: An Introduction to Convolutional Neural Networks - ↑ 6. Convolutional Neural Networks — Dive into Deep Learning 0.15.1 documentation
- ↑
^{28.0}^{28.1}^{28.2}^{28.3}Multitask Convolutional Neural Network for Rolling Element Bearing Fault Identification

## 메타데이터

### 위키데이터

- ID : Q17084460