# 변분법

둘러보기로 가기 검색하러 가기

## 개요

• 변분법은 특정한 적분의 값을 가장 크거나 작게 하는 함수를 찾는 문제와 관련된 수학의 분야이다
• 미적분학의 중요한 문제는 함수를 가장 크거나 작게 만드는 점을 찾는 것이다
• 변분법은 함수의 공간을 정의역으로 갖는 함수에 대한 미적분학이라 할 수 있다
• 변분법이 사용된 고전적인 예로 최단시간강하곡선 문제(Brachistochrone problem)가 있다

## 관련도서

• Ekeland, Ivar. The Best of All Possible Worlds: Mathematics and Destiny. Reprint edition. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2007.
• Basdevant, Jean-Louis. Variational Principles in Physics. 2007 edition. New York, NY: Springer, 2007.

## 노트

### 말뭉치

1. This post is going to describe a specialized type of calculus called variational calculus.[1]
2. I'll try to follow Svetitsky's notes to give some intuition on how we arrive at variational calculus from regular calculus with a bunch of examples along the way.[1]
3. Calculus of variations, branch of mathematics concerned with the problem of finding a function for which the value of a certain integral is either the largest or the smallest possible.[2]
4. Modern interest in the calculus of variations began in 1696 when Johann Bernoulli of Switzerland proposed a brachistochrone (“least-time”) problem as a challenge to his peers.[2]
5. This technique, typical of the calculus of variations, led to a differential equation whose solution is a curve called the cycloid.[2]
6. Functions that maximize or minimize functionals may be found using the Euler–Lagrange equation of the calculus of variations.[3]
7. Calculus of variations seeks to find the path, curve, surface, etc., for which a given function has a stationary value (which, in physical problems, is usually a minimum or maximum).[4]
8. A generalization of calculus of variations known as Morse theory (and sometimes called "calculus of variations in the large") uses nonlinear techniques to address variational problems.[4]
9. The calculus of variations addresses the need to optimize certain quantities over sets of functions.[5]
10. We then introduce the calculus of variations as it applies to classical mechanics, resulting in the Principle of Stationary Action, from which we develop the foundations of Lagrangian mechanics.[5]
11. Finally, we examine an extension of the calculus of variations in optimal control.[5]
12. Such a function is called a functional, the focal point of the calculus of variations.[5]
13. The best way to appreciate the calculus of variations is by introducing a few concrete examples of both mathematical and practical importance.[6]
14. However, a fully rigorous proof of this fact requires a careful development of the mathematical machinery of the calculus of variations.[6]
15. The mathematical techniques developed to solve this type of problem are collectively known as the calculus of variations.[7]
16. A typical problem in the calculus of variations involve finding a particular function \(y(x)\) to maximize or minimize the integral \(I(y)\) subject to boundary conditions \(y(a)=A\) and \(y(b)=B\).[7]
17. While predominantly designed as a textbook for lecture courses on the calculus of variations, this book can also serve as the basis for a reading seminar or as a companion for self-study.[8]
18. Calculus of variations is used to nd the gradient of a functional (here E(u)) w.r.t.[9]
19. We use this same methodology for calculus of variations, but now u is a continuous function of a (cid:82) b a (x)2dx = 1).[9]
20. Here we present three useful examples of variational calculus as applied to problems in mathematics and physics.[10]
21. Lagrangian mechanics is based on the calculus of variations, which is the subject of optimization over a space of paths.[11]
22. These lecture notes are intented as a straightforward introduction to the calculus of variations which can serve as a textbook for undergraduate and beginning graduate students.[12]
23. A huge amount of problems in the calculus of variations have their origin in physics where one has to minimize the energy associated to the problem under consideration.[12]
24. real , Integration by parts in the formula for g0(0) and the following basic lemma 2 in the calculus of variations imply Eulers equation.[12]
25. Since its beginnings, the calculus of variations has been intimately connected with the theory of dieren- tial equations; in particular, the theory of boundary value problems.[13]
26. This interplay between the theory of boundary value problems for dierential equations and the calculus of variations will be one of the major themes in the course.[13]
27. We will focus on Euler's calculus of variations, a method applicable to solving the entire class of extremising problems.[14]
28. It was in his 1744 book, though, that Euler transformed a set of special cases into a systematic approach to general problems: the calculus of variations was born.[14]
29. Euler coined the term calculus of variations, or variational calculus, based on the notation of Joseph-Louis Lagrange whose work formalised some of the underlying concepts.[14]
30. In their joint honour, the central equation of the calculus of variations is called the Euler-Lagrange equation.[14]
31. The calculus of variations underlies a powerful alternative approach to classical mechanics that is based on identifying the path that minimizes an integral quantity.[15]
32. In general, the calculus of variations is the branch of mathematics that investigates the stationary values of a generalized function, defined in terms of some generalized variables.[16]
33. In this regard, calculus of variations has found a wide range of applications in science and engineering.[16]
34. Ideas from the calculus of variations are commonly found in papers dealing with the finite element method.[17]
35. This handout discusses some of the basic notations and concepts of variational calculus.[17]
36. The calculus of variations is a sort of generalization of the calculus that you all know.[17]
37. The goal of variational calculus is to find the curve or surface that minimizes a given function.[17]
38. In calculus of variations the basic problem is to nd a function y for which the functional I(y) is maximum or minimum.[18]

## 메타데이터

### Spacy 패턴 목록

• [{'LOWER': 'calculus'}, {'LOWER': 'of'}, {'LEMMA': 'variation'}]
• [{'LOWER': 'variational'}, {'LEMMA': 'calculus'}]