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관련도서

  • Max Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics (McGraw-Hill 1966).
  • B. L. Van der Warden, Sources of Quantum Mechanics

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말뭉치

  1. Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic scale.[1]
  2. The behaviour of matter and radiation on the atomic scale often seems peculiar, and the consequences of quantum theory are accordingly difficult to understand and to believe.[1]
  3. In spite of the overwhelming practical success of quantum mechanics, the foundations of the subject contain unresolved problems—in particular, problems concerning the nature of measurement.[1]
  4. Thus, quantum mechanics attracted some of the ablest scientists of the 20th century, and they erected what is perhaps the finest intellectual edifice of the period.[1]
  5. Quantum physics underlies how atoms work, and so why chemistry and biology work as they do.[2]
  6. To begin with, there’s no single quantum theory.[2]
  7. There’s quantum mechanics, the basic mathematical framework that underpins it all, which was first developed in the 1920s by Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger and others.[2]
  8. At a basic level, quantum physics predicts very strange things about how matter works that are completely at odds with how things seem to work in the real world.[2]
  9. That is, the TSVF assumes quantum mechanics works the same way both forward and backward in time.[3]
  10. Elitzur agrees their experiment could have been conceived using the conventional view of quantum mechanics that prevailed decades ago—but it never was.[3]
  11. Unlike relativity, however, the origins of QM cannot be attributed to any one scientist.[4]
  12. The principles of quantization, wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle ushered in a new era for QM.[4]
  13. Unfortunately, QFT has yet to produce a quantum theory of gravity.[4]
  14. Quantum mechanics cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space, only the probability of finding it at different locations.[5]
  15. The probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics thus stems from the act of measurement.[5]
  16. In the decades after the formulation of quantum mechanics, the question of what constitutes a "measurement" has been extensively studied.[5]
  17. Newer interpretations of quantum mechanics have been formulated that do away with the concept of "wave function collapse" (see, for example, the many-worlds interpretation).[5]
  18. Historically, QM was first applied to electrons only and a sharp dynamic separation with respect to the much heavier nuclei was applied known as the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation (BOA).[6]
  19. = 10 K and 300 K and those obtained in QM for a particle in a confining box potential.[6]
  20. That is what an interpretation of the theory would provide: a proper account of what the world is like according to quantum mechanics, intrinsically and from the bottom up.[7]
  21. The situation is a little different in quantum mechanics, where there are mathematically describable ways of combining the values of the quantities that don’t represent physically possible states.[7]
  22. The heart and soul of quantum mechanics is contained in the Hilbert spaces that represent the state-spaces of quantum mechanical systems.[7]
  23. This means that understanding what a system is like according to quantum mechanics is inseparable from familiarity with the internal structure of those spaces.[7]
  24. Scientists interpret quantum mechanics to mean that a tiny piece of material like a photon or electron is both a particle and a wave.[8]
  25. Nevertheless, most physicists today accept the laws of quantum mechanics as an accurate description of the subatomic world.[8]
  26. Then there is quantum mechanics, which handles the other three forces – electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.[9]
  27. Quantum theory is extremely adept at describing what happens when a uranium atom decays, or when individual particles of light hit a solar cell.[9]
  28. In quantum mechanics, events produced by the interaction of subatomic particles happen in jumps (yes, quantum leaps), with probabilistic rather than definite outcomes.[9]
  29. Likewise, quantum mechanics runs into serious trouble when you blow it up to cosmic dimensions.[9]
  30. The American physicist Richard Feynman said this about the notorious puzzles and paradoxes of quantum mechanics, the theory physicists use to describe the tiniest objects in the Universe.[10]
  31. The perennial puzzle of consciousness has even led some researchers to invoke quantum physics to explain it.[10]
  32. For one thing, the mind seemed, to the great discomfort of physicists, to force its way into early quantum theory.[10]
  33. Quantum mechanics is the best theory we have for describing the world at the nuts-and-bolts level of atoms and subatomic particles.[10]
  34. (9), as in our model (in the previous two subsections), will have to allow many more wave functions than those allowed in quantum mechanics.[11]
  35. Nevertheless, as shown above, measurement of angular momentum will only yield discrete (quantized) outcome as in quantum mechanics.[11]
  36. The founders of quantum mechanics understood it to be deeply, profoundly weird.[12]
  37. Then in 1964, John Stewart Bell proved a theorem that would test whether quantum theory was obscuring a full description of reality, as Einstein claimed.[12]
  38. In addition, it assumes (à la Einstein) that there’s a hidden deterministic reality not modeled by the mathematics of quantum mechanics.[12]
  39. The measured correlations were above the level known as Bell’s inequality, and Bell tests were consistent with the predictions of quantum mechanics.[12]
  40. But by the mid-1920s he had started to distance himself from developments in quantum theory.[13]
  41. This was because quantum mechanics did not provide exact measurements.[13]
  42. To an even greater extent than relativity, quantum mechanics today pervades all areas of fundamental physics – from matter’s building blocks to the big bang and almost everything in between.[13]
  43. In 1935 Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen thought they had found a paradox in the equations of quantum mechanics.[13]
  44. Take free online quantum physics courses to build your skills and advance your career.[14]
  45. Additionally, edX offers the option to pursue verified certificates in quantum physics courses.[14]
  46. If you are new to the world of quantum mechanics, get an introduction with Georgetown’s self-paced course, Quantum Mechanics for Everyone.[14]
  47. For more advanced topics in quantum physics, consider two courses from MIT.[14]
  48. Despite its many successes, physicists are still struggling to nail down a coherent interpretation of quantum mechanics, as it best represents “reality”.[15]
  49. Indeed, the debate about the interpretation of quantum mechanics, which began in 1927, continues to this day.[15]
  50. Sure, there’s nothing in quantum mechanics that can account for this.[15]
  51. For example, Leonard Schiff’s Quantum Mechanics, first published in 1949, informed the teaching of the theory throughout North America, Europe and Asia through three editions spanning 20 years.[15]
  52. This is the strongest result yet in a long series of discoveries in quantum mechanics that have upended our ideas about reality.[16]
  53. Quantum mechanics works extremely well to describe the behaviour of tiny objects, such as atoms or particles of light (photons).[16]
  54. However, Wigner noticed that if he applied the equations of quantum mechanics to describe this situation from the outside, the result was quite different.[16]
  55. As in Wigner’s argument, the equations of quantum mechanics tell us Charlie and Debbie should become entangled with their observed particles.[16]
  56. Quantum mechanics is one of the most challenging subjects to learn.[17]
  57. The understanding of quantum mechanics is incomplete without understanding the early ideas and experiments that lead to the development of the quantum theory.[17]
  58. This course covers the experimental basis of quantum physics.[18]
  59. Notice also that quantum mechanics provides no exception to our rule; it also requires a definition of an ordered time coordinate.[19]
  60. The theory of quantum mechanics is arguably one of the greatest discoveries of physics; it revolutionized our understanding of molecules, atoms, radiation, and the world of the sub-atomic particles.[19]
  61. Quantum mechanics is a superb description of the world of tiny things, but, on the face of it, quantum mechanics seems merely to reflect humanity's ignorance.[19]
  62. They conceived of a Gedanken experiment to show that quantum mechanics cannot exactly provide a local description of what is going on.[19]
  63. Schleier-Smith studies quantum mechanics, the theory that explains the nature of really small things: atoms, photons, and individual particles (e.g. electrons).[20]
  64. Until physicists definitively answer these questions, they can’t really be said to understand quantum mechanics — thus Feynman’s lament.[21]
  65. Which is bad, because quantum mechanics is the most fundamental theory we have, sitting squarely at the center of every serious attempt to formulate deep laws of nature.[21]
  66. You would naturally think, then, that understanding quantum mechanics would be the absolute highest priority among physicists worldwide.[21]
  67. Investigating the foundations of quantum theory should be a glamour specialty within the field, attracting the brightest minds, highest salaries and most prestigious prizes.[21]
  68. The theoretical framework for describing this precisely is the quantum mechanics.[22]
  69. Quantum mechanics of point particles may be understood as a special case of the formalism of quantum field theory.[22]
  70. More generally, quantum physics is all the known physics not including classical physics in wider sense; it includes relativistic and nonrelativistic phenomena.[22]
  71. which explains theoretically phenomena of quantum physics: in this generality of the formalism a la von Neumann, it includes the quantum field theory.[22]
  72. By the turn of the century, however, the cracks were beginning to show and the disciplines of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics were developed to account for them.[23]
  73. In Quantum Mechanics this neat distinction is blurred.[23]
  74. We shall, however, expand greatly upon the basic framework of Quantum Mechanics in later chapters....[23]
  75. Quantum mechanics is a set of principles underlying the most fundamental known description of all physical systems at the submicroscopic scale (at the atomic level).[24]
  76. Classical physics can be derived as a good approximation to quantum physics, typically in circumstances with large numbers of particles.[24]
  77. Quantum theory provides accurate descriptions for many previously unexplained phenomena such as black body radiation and stable electron orbits.[24]
  78. He afterwards took part in the development of atomic physics from the still essentially classical picture of Bohr's early work to the true quantum mechanics.[25]
  79. There are specialized treatises on various aspects of the foundations of QM, but none that integrate those topics with the standard material.[26]
  80. The impact of quantum information theory on the foundations of quantum mechanics is discussed.[26]
  81. The book is intended primarily as a graduate level textbook, but it will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers who study the foundations of QM.[26]
  82. Quantum mechanics thus takes a probabilistic view of nature, sharply contrasting with classical mechanics, in which all precise properties of objects are, in principle, calculable.[27]
  83. It’s one of the oddest tenets of quantum theory: a particle can be in two places at once—yet we only ever see it here or there.[28]
  84. The basic idea is that the gravitational field of any object stands outside quantum theory.[28]
  85. Quantum theory as a scientific revolution profoundly influenced human thought about the universe and governed forces of nature.[29]
  86. A quantum theory of relativistic scalar particles is developed in which the proper time τ is central.[30]
  87. We must find a way of taking over this new information into the quantum theory and must set up a relativistic quantum mechanics, before we can dispense with the Correspondence Principle.[31]
  88. This category of whole-to-part phenomena and the questions they raise for the reductionism–emergence debate can be fully analyzed using standard quantum mechanics.[32]
  89. We do not need to make any modification of standard quantum mechanics to analyze these whole-to-part effects.[32]
  90. This time-symmetric reformulation of standard quantum mechanics is known as the two-state vector formalism (TSVF) (17⇓⇓–20).[32]
  91. In particular, we generalize this scenario to the many-body case and claim it is an example of a completely top–down logical structure in quantum mechanics.[32]
  92. This article discusses the history of quantum physics, beginning with an analysis of the process through which a community of quantum theorists and experimentalists came into being.[33]
  93. It also considers the post-war years, as the problems of atomic spectroscopy sparked the development of new methodological approaches to quantum theory.[33]

소스

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 quantum mechanics | Definition, Development, & Equations
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Quantum physics
  3. 3.0 3.1 Quantum Physics May Be Even Spookier Than You Think
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 What Is Quantum Mechanics?
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Quantum mechanics
  6. 6.0 6.1 Quantum Mechanics - an overview
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Quantum Mechanics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Quantum Mechanics
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 The strange link between the human mind and quantum physics
  11. 11.0 11.1 Quantum mechanics as classical statistical mechanics with an ontic extension and an epistemic restriction
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 A New Theorem Maps Out the Limits of Quantum Physics
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Quantum mechanics
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Learn Quantum Physics and Mechanics with Online Courses and Classes
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Thirty years of ‘against measurement’ – Physics World
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 A new quantum paradox throws the foundations of observed reality into question
  17. 17.0 17.1 Quantum Mechanics A Simplified Approach
  18. Quantum Physics I
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Time, the Arrow of Time, and Quantum Mechanics
  20. Building A Better Clock With Quantum Physics : Short Wave : NPR
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Even Physicists Don’t Understand Quantum Mechanics - The New York Times
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 quantum mechanics in nLab
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 2. Some Basic Ideas about Quantum Mechanics
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Quantum mechanics news and latest updates
  25. General Principles of Quantum Mechanics
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Quantum Mechanics
  27. The birth of quantum theory
  28. 28.0 28.1 One of quantum physics’ greatest paradoxes may have lost its leading explanation
  29. Theoretical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics
  30. Proper-Time Formulation of Quantum Mechanics
  31. Relativistic quantum mechanics
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 Completely top–down hierarchical structure in quantum mechanics
  33. 33.0 33.1 Quantum Physics

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