# 양자역학

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## 개요

## 메모

- Papers from the beginning of quantum mechanics
- Bolotin, Arkady. “Examples of Non-Constructive Proofs in Quantum Theory.” arXiv:1509.06801 [math-Ph, Physics:quant-Ph], September 22, 2015. http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.06801.

## 관련된 항목들

### 하위페이지

## 사전 형태의 자료

- http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
- The Online Encyclopaedia of Mathematics
- NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions
- The World of Mathematical Equations

## 리뷰, 에세이, 강의노트

- Hollowood, Timothy J. “Copenhagen Quantum Mechanics.” arXiv:1511.01069 [hep-Th, Physics:quant-Ph], November 3, 2015. http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.01069.
- Moretti, Valter. “Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: An Advanced Short Course.” arXiv:1508.06951 [hep-Th, Physics:math-Ph], August 27, 2015. http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.06951.
- Clemente-Gallardo, J., and G. Marmo. ‘Klein’s Programme and Quantum Mechanics’. International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics, 4 March 2015, 1560006. doi:10.1142/S0219887815600063.
- Kisil, Vladimir V. “Classical/Quantum=Commutative/Noncommutative?” arXiv:1204.1858 [math-Ph, Physics:quant-Ph], April 9, 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.1858.
- Zeeman effect http://unicorn.ps.uci.edu/H2A/handouts/PDFs/RWFSodium.pdf[1]
- B. L. van der Waerden, From Matrix Mechanics and Wave Mechanics to Unified Quantum Mechanics

## 관련도서

- Max Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics (McGraw-Hill 1966).
- B. L. Van der Warden, Sources of Quantum Mechanics

## 노트

### 위키데이터

- ID : Q944

### 말뭉치

- Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic scale.
^{[1]} - The behaviour of matter and radiation on the atomic scale often seems peculiar, and the consequences of quantum theory are accordingly difficult to understand and to believe.
^{[1]} - In spite of the overwhelming practical success of quantum mechanics, the foundations of the subject contain unresolved problems—in particular, problems concerning the nature of measurement.
^{[1]} - Thus, quantum mechanics attracted some of the ablest scientists of the 20th century, and they erected what is perhaps the finest intellectual edifice of the period.
^{[1]} - Quantum physics underlies how atoms work, and so why chemistry and biology work as they do.
^{[2]} - To begin with, there’s no single quantum theory.
^{[2]} - There’s quantum mechanics, the basic mathematical framework that underpins it all, which was first developed in the 1920s by Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger and others.
^{[2]} - At a basic level, quantum physics predicts very strange things about how matter works that are completely at odds with how things seem to work in the real world.
^{[2]} - That is, the TSVF assumes quantum mechanics works the same way both forward and backward in time.
^{[3]} - Elitzur agrees their experiment could have been conceived using the conventional view of quantum mechanics that prevailed decades ago—but it never was.
^{[3]} - Unlike relativity, however, the origins of QM cannot be attributed to any one scientist.
^{[4]} - The principles of quantization, wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle ushered in a new era for QM.
^{[4]} - Unfortunately, QFT has yet to produce a quantum theory of gravity.
^{[4]} - Quantum mechanics cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space, only the probability of finding it at different locations.
^{[5]} - The probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics thus stems from the act of measurement.
^{[5]} - In the decades after the formulation of quantum mechanics, the question of what constitutes a "measurement" has been extensively studied.
^{[5]} - Newer interpretations of quantum mechanics have been formulated that do away with the concept of "wave function collapse" (see, for example, the many-worlds interpretation).
^{[5]} - Historically, QM was first applied to electrons only and a sharp dynamic separation with respect to the much heavier nuclei was applied known as the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation (BOA).
^{[6]} - = 10 K and 300 K and those obtained in QM for a particle in a confining box potential.
^{[6]} - That is what an interpretation of the theory would provide: a proper account of what the world is like according to quantum mechanics, intrinsically and from the bottom up.
^{[7]} - The situation is a little different in quantum mechanics, where there are mathematically describable ways of combining the values of the quantities that don’t represent physically possible states.
^{[7]} - The heart and soul of quantum mechanics is contained in the Hilbert spaces that represent the state-spaces of quantum mechanical systems.
^{[7]} - This means that understanding what a system is like according to quantum mechanics is inseparable from familiarity with the internal structure of those spaces.
^{[7]} - Scientists interpret quantum mechanics to mean that a tiny piece of material like a photon or electron is both a particle and a wave.
^{[8]} - Nevertheless, most physicists today accept the laws of quantum mechanics as an accurate description of the subatomic world.
^{[8]} - Then there is quantum mechanics, which handles the other three forces – electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.
^{[9]} - Quantum theory is extremely adept at describing what happens when a uranium atom decays, or when individual particles of light hit a solar cell.
^{[9]} - In quantum mechanics, events produced by the interaction of subatomic particles happen in jumps (yes, quantum leaps), with probabilistic rather than definite outcomes.
^{[9]} - Likewise, quantum mechanics runs into serious trouble when you blow it up to cosmic dimensions.
^{[9]} - The American physicist Richard Feynman said this about the notorious puzzles and paradoxes of quantum mechanics, the theory physicists use to describe the tiniest objects in the Universe.
^{[10]} - The perennial puzzle of consciousness has even led some researchers to invoke quantum physics to explain it.
^{[10]} - For one thing, the mind seemed, to the great discomfort of physicists, to force its way into early quantum theory.
^{[10]} - Quantum mechanics is the best theory we have for describing the world at the nuts-and-bolts level of atoms and subatomic particles.
^{[10]} - (9), as in our model (in the previous two subsections), will have to allow many more wave functions than those allowed in quantum mechanics.
^{[11]} - Nevertheless, as shown above, measurement of angular momentum will only yield discrete (quantized) outcome as in quantum mechanics.
^{[11]} - The founders of quantum mechanics understood it to be deeply, profoundly weird.
^{[12]} - Then in 1964, John Stewart Bell proved a theorem that would test whether quantum theory was obscuring a full description of reality, as Einstein claimed.
^{[12]} - In addition, it assumes (à la Einstein) that there’s a hidden deterministic reality not modeled by the mathematics of quantum mechanics.
^{[12]} - The measured correlations were above the level known as Bell’s inequality, and Bell tests were consistent with the predictions of quantum mechanics.
^{[12]} - But by the mid-1920s he had started to distance himself from developments in quantum theory.
^{[13]} - This was because quantum mechanics did not provide exact measurements.
^{[13]} - To an even greater extent than relativity, quantum mechanics today pervades all areas of fundamental physics – from matter’s building blocks to the big bang and almost everything in between.
^{[13]} - In 1935 Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen thought they had found a paradox in the equations of quantum mechanics.
^{[13]} - Take free online quantum physics courses to build your skills and advance your career.
^{[14]} - Additionally, edX offers the option to pursue verified certificates in quantum physics courses.
^{[14]} - If you are new to the world of quantum mechanics, get an introduction with Georgetown’s self-paced course, Quantum Mechanics for Everyone.
^{[14]} - For more advanced topics in quantum physics, consider two courses from MIT.
^{[14]} - Despite its many successes, physicists are still struggling to nail down a coherent interpretation of quantum mechanics, as it best represents “reality”.
^{[15]} - Indeed, the debate about the interpretation of quantum mechanics, which began in 1927, continues to this day.
^{[15]} - Sure, there’s nothing in quantum mechanics that can account for this.
^{[15]} - For example, Leonard Schiff’s Quantum Mechanics, first published in 1949, informed the teaching of the theory throughout North America, Europe and Asia through three editions spanning 20 years.
^{[15]} - This is the strongest result yet in a long series of discoveries in quantum mechanics that have upended our ideas about reality.
^{[16]} - Quantum mechanics works extremely well to describe the behaviour of tiny objects, such as atoms or particles of light (photons).
^{[16]} - However, Wigner noticed that if he applied the equations of quantum mechanics to describe this situation from the outside, the result was quite different.
^{[16]} - As in Wigner’s argument, the equations of quantum mechanics tell us Charlie and Debbie should become entangled with their observed particles.
^{[16]} - Quantum mechanics is one of the most challenging subjects to learn.
^{[17]} - The understanding of quantum mechanics is incomplete without understanding the early ideas and experiments that lead to the development of the quantum theory.
^{[17]} - This course covers the experimental basis of quantum physics.
^{[18]} - Notice also that quantum mechanics provides no exception to our rule; it also requires a definition of an ordered time coordinate.
^{[19]} - The theory of quantum mechanics is arguably one of the greatest discoveries of physics; it revolutionized our understanding of molecules, atoms, radiation, and the world of the sub-atomic particles.
^{[19]} - Quantum mechanics is a superb description of the world of tiny things, but, on the face of it, quantum mechanics seems merely to reflect humanity's ignorance.
^{[19]} - They conceived of a Gedanken experiment to show that quantum mechanics cannot exactly provide a local description of what is going on.
^{[19]} - Schleier-Smith studies quantum mechanics, the theory that explains the nature of really small things: atoms, photons, and individual particles (e.g. electrons).
^{[20]} - Until physicists definitively answer these questions, they can’t really be said to understand quantum mechanics — thus Feynman’s lament.
^{[21]} - Which is bad, because quantum mechanics is the most fundamental theory we have, sitting squarely at the center of every serious attempt to formulate deep laws of nature.
^{[21]} - You would naturally think, then, that understanding quantum mechanics would be the absolute highest priority among physicists worldwide.
^{[21]} - Investigating the foundations of quantum theory should be a glamour specialty within the field, attracting the brightest minds, highest salaries and most prestigious prizes.
^{[21]} - The theoretical framework for describing this precisely is the quantum mechanics.
^{[22]} - Quantum mechanics of point particles may be understood as a special case of the formalism of quantum field theory.
^{[22]} - More generally, quantum physics is all the known physics not including classical physics in wider sense; it includes relativistic and nonrelativistic phenomena.
^{[22]} - which explains theoretically phenomena of quantum physics: in this generality of the formalism a la von Neumann, it includes the quantum field theory.
^{[22]} - By the turn of the century, however, the cracks were beginning to show and the disciplines of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics were developed to account for them.
^{[23]} - In Quantum Mechanics this neat distinction is blurred.
^{[23]} - We shall, however, expand greatly upon the basic framework of Quantum Mechanics in later chapters....
^{[23]} - Quantum mechanics is a set of principles underlying the most fundamental known description of all physical systems at the submicroscopic scale (at the atomic level).
^{[24]} - Classical physics can be derived as a good approximation to quantum physics, typically in circumstances with large numbers of particles.
^{[24]} - Quantum theory provides accurate descriptions for many previously unexplained phenomena such as black body radiation and stable electron orbits.
^{[24]} - He afterwards took part in the development of atomic physics from the still essentially classical picture of Bohr's early work to the true quantum mechanics.
^{[25]} - There are specialized treatises on various aspects of the foundations of QM, but none that integrate those topics with the standard material.
^{[26]} - The impact of quantum information theory on the foundations of quantum mechanics is discussed.
^{[26]} - The book is intended primarily as a graduate level textbook, but it will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers who study the foundations of QM.
^{[26]} - Quantum mechanics thus takes a probabilistic view of nature, sharply contrasting with classical mechanics, in which all precise properties of objects are, in principle, calculable.
^{[27]} - It’s one of the oddest tenets of quantum theory: a particle can be in two places at once—yet we only ever see it here or there.
^{[28]} - The basic idea is that the gravitational field of any object stands outside quantum theory.
^{[28]} - Quantum theory as a scientific revolution profoundly influenced human thought about the universe and governed forces of nature.
^{[29]} - A quantum theory of relativistic scalar particles is developed in which the proper time τ is central.
^{[30]} - We must find a way of taking over this new information into the quantum theory and must set up a relativistic quantum mechanics, before we can dispense with the Correspondence Principle.
^{[31]} - This category of whole-to-part phenomena and the questions they raise for the reductionism–emergence debate can be fully analyzed using standard quantum mechanics.
^{[32]} - We do not need to make any modification of standard quantum mechanics to analyze these whole-to-part effects.
^{[32]} - This time-symmetric reformulation of standard quantum mechanics is known as the two-state vector formalism (TSVF) (17⇓⇓–20).
^{[32]} - In particular, we generalize this scenario to the many-body case and claim it is an example of a completely top–down logical structure in quantum mechanics.
^{[32]} - This article discusses the history of quantum physics, beginning with an analysis of the process through which a community of quantum theorists and experimentalists came into being.
^{[33]} - It also considers the post-war years, as the problems of atomic spectroscopy sparked the development of new methodological approaches to quantum theory.
^{[33]}

### 소스

- ↑
^{1.0}^{1.1}^{1.2}^{1.3}quantum mechanics | Definition, Development, & Equations - ↑
^{2.0}^{2.1}^{2.2}^{2.3}Quantum physics - ↑
^{3.0}^{3.1}Quantum Physics May Be Even Spookier Than You Think - ↑
^{4.0}^{4.1}^{4.2}What Is Quantum Mechanics? - ↑
^{5.0}^{5.1}^{5.2}^{5.3}Quantum mechanics - ↑
^{6.0}^{6.1}Quantum Mechanics - an overview - ↑
^{7.0}^{7.1}^{7.2}^{7.3}Quantum Mechanics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) - ↑
^{8.0}^{8.1}Quantum Mechanics - ↑
^{9.0}^{9.1}^{9.2}^{9.3}Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe - ↑
^{10.0}^{10.1}^{10.2}^{10.3}The strange link between the human mind and quantum physics - ↑
^{11.0}^{11.1}Quantum mechanics as classical statistical mechanics with an ontic extension and an epistemic restriction - ↑
^{12.0}^{12.1}^{12.2}^{12.3}A New Theorem Maps Out the Limits of Quantum Physics - ↑
^{13.0}^{13.1}^{13.2}^{13.3}Quantum mechanics - ↑
^{14.0}^{14.1}^{14.2}^{14.3}Learn Quantum Physics and Mechanics with Online Courses and Classes - ↑
^{15.0}^{15.1}^{15.2}^{15.3}Thirty years of ‘against measurement’ – Physics World - ↑
^{16.0}^{16.1}^{16.2}^{16.3}A new quantum paradox throws the foundations of observed reality into question - ↑
^{17.0}^{17.1}Quantum Mechanics A Simplified Approach - ↑ Quantum Physics I
- ↑
^{19.0}^{19.1}^{19.2}^{19.3}Time, the Arrow of Time, and Quantum Mechanics - ↑ Building A Better Clock With Quantum Physics : Short Wave : NPR
- ↑
^{21.0}^{21.1}^{21.2}^{21.3}Even Physicists Don’t Understand Quantum Mechanics - The New York Times - ↑
^{22.0}^{22.1}^{22.2}^{22.3}quantum mechanics in nLab - ↑
^{23.0}^{23.1}^{23.2}2. Some Basic Ideas about Quantum Mechanics - ↑
^{24.0}^{24.1}^{24.2}Quantum mechanics news and latest updates - ↑ General Principles of Quantum Mechanics
- ↑
^{26.0}^{26.1}^{26.2}Quantum Mechanics - ↑ The birth of quantum theory
- ↑
^{28.0}^{28.1}One of quantum physics’ greatest paradoxes may have lost its leading explanation - ↑ Theoretical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics
- ↑ Proper-Time Formulation of Quantum Mechanics
- ↑ Relativistic quantum mechanics
- ↑
^{32.0}^{32.1}^{32.2}^{32.3}Completely top–down hierarchical structure in quantum mechanics - ↑
^{33.0}^{33.1}Quantum Physics

## 메타데이터

### 위키데이터

- ID : Q944